APL Apollo Tubes Limited, the largest producer of electric resistance welded (ERW) steel pipes and tubes in India, with an annual capacity of more than 2.5 million tonnes, has introduced its Apollo Column range of hollow structural sections that give a futuristic edge to construction structures of any design and elevation. The product offers India’s largest range of hollow structural sections ranging from 12×12 mm to 300×300 mm in size.

Big Shift In Pre-engineered Building

Use Of Hollow Steel Sections (HSS)

Around the world there is a shift towards high performance materials in structural engineering in the steel construction sector and this has been more evident with built-up sections. But hollow portions are now in the process of raising the strength level of their products. The use of HSS has the potential to reduce material and project costs.

The popularity of HSS in construction has increased dramatically over the years as engineers have become aware of the advantages of steel tubes. The incorporation of HSS connections in the AISC standard has simplified connection designs and contributed to the rise in use of HSS.

HSS are very efficient sections and their major benefits are inherent in their shape and engineering properties. The closed shape and relatively large moment of inertia about the weak axis make them highly resistant against   the torsional effects. Architects and engineers can take advantage of the modern and aesthetically pleasing appearance of exposed HSS structures.

Why HSS in PEB?

PEB has seen tremendous growth in the last decade over conventional steel building. Currently, PEB manufacturers are using built-up sections manufactured by welded plates.

The Game Changer In Construction

Introducing Apollo Column

Apollo Column is a range of hollow structural sections that gives a futuristic edge to construct structures of any design & elevation. It offers India’s largest range of hollow structural sections ranging from 12×12 mm to 300×300 mm in size. Apollo Columns are suitable building material for infrastructure, commercial as well as residential projects.

Apollo Column is the irreplaceable member of structural buildings due to its high load bearing capacity & strength-to-weight ratio. It offers higher radii of gyration about axes, providing superior compression performance and significant weight savings.

Its Advantages

?Flexibility in design: Gives the engineers & architects enough flexibility to create unique structures

?Uniform strength: No weaker axis due to uniform distribution of material around its axis

?High strength-to-weight ratio: High strength-to-weight ratio results in savings in steel consumption

?Aesthetically pleasing: Smooth profile of Apollo Columns enhances the aesthetic appeal of the structures

?Easy to paint: Apollo Columns are easily painted due to uniform & smooth shape

?Higher torsional strength: Apollo Column delivers exceptional torsional resistance with 200 times greater torsion than open sections

?Less wastage of material: Apollo Column provides cut-to-length sizes from 4 to 12 mm to avoid wastage

?Environmental-friendly: Conventional construction methodology causes severe pollution

?Less consumption of steel: Due to higher geometrical properties of HSS sections the consumption of steel in structures is reduced

?Lower project cost: Lower steel consumption, low erection time & low transportation cost saves overall project cost

?Easy to install: Use of bolting system makes the installation easier

?Ease of fabrication: Ease of welding, punching, bending & drilling makes Apollo Column a perfect choice for engineers

?High strength-to-weight ratio: High strength-to-weight ratio results in savings in steel consumption

 

10 – 20% Lighter Building Than Conventional PEB

HSS Structures Reduce Overall Project Cost

The unit material cost of HSS is higher than that of open built-up sections, but that’s not the whole story. The additional strength of steel tube permits an optimum design. Use of HSS sections against built-up sections significantly reduces weight. Reducing the weight also saves in transportation and erection costs. In those applications where paint is required, the fact that hollow sections have 30-40% less surface area than equivalent built-up sections can result in using less material and reducing application time, both of which reduce costs. Furthermore, the smooth corners in HSS structures reduce susceptibility to corrosion which lessens the life cycle cost.

Research Work with IIT Roorkee

To understand & advocate the benefits of hollow steel sections in steel structures, APL Apollo has done extensive research work with the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. The research work comprises of the case studies intended to compare the tonnage and indicative costing of HSS & Built-up Sections Steel Structures for Industrial Shed, Warehouse Shed and Commercial Multi-Storey Building. The extensive research shows that use of HSS sections in structural buildings reduces the consumption of main steel by 10-20% and ultimately reduces the project cost.

APL Apollo is doing a live project to build an industrial shed using Apollo Column at Dujana Plant to put all the research findings into a real-time activity.

Case Study 1 Warehouse Shed

Overview:

The warehouse shed of 9000 sq. m designed has equal bays and single pitched roof. The structure designed with 2 con?gurations, one using built-up I sections and another using hollow steel section (HSS). The structures are designed for the dead load, live load, wind load & seismic load.

Approach:

The building is designed with the two structural con?gurations for optimising the material consumption while meeting structural strength requirements. After preliminary sizing of various structural members, 3-D CAD model of the structural frame of the building has been generated using STAAD-Pro Connect. The permissible values of the load factors and stresses have been considered as per guidelines of Indian Standards.

Material:

Tubular sections: Conforming to IS:4923 & IS 1161

Built-up sections: Conforming to IS:2062 for HR plates

Roo?ng sheet: 0.47 mm thick (TCT) Bare Galvalume Sheet of 550 MPa grade

Wall cladding: 0.5 mm thick (TCT) colour coated sheet of 550 MPa grade

Load Calculations:

?Dead load

The dead load on structure includes all the permanent loads attached with structure i.e. self-weight of structure, roo?ng sheet. Following are the permanent loads which have been considered in design & analysis.

Weight of structure: Self weight Weight of connections: 15 % of self-weight

Weight of roof sheeting: 4.5 kg/sqm Weight of wall cladding: 4.5 kg/sqm

Load on purlins: (.03+0.045)*1.42 = 0.1065 kN/m

Load on girts: 0.045*1.42 = 0.0639 kN/m

?Imposed loads

Imposed loads as per IS: 875 (Part-2), acting on the structure have been considered

Roof live load: 0.75 kN/sqm

?Wind load

Wind load has been calculated as per IS:875 part 3-2015.

Basic wind speed of: 47 m/s, (as per NBC 2016)

Terrain category: 2

Design Life: 50 years

Percentage openings: 5 to 20% of wall

?Seismic load

In lightweight low-rise structures such as the proposed building, seismic loads are inconsequential while wind load affects are pre-dominant, still seismic loads as per IS 1893 have been evaluated by static method and the structure has been checked for adequacy for relevant seismic load combinations.

Result & Conclusions

35% less consumptionof main steel.

Case Study 2 Industrial Shed

Overview:

The industrial shed of 11,500 sq. m designed has 2 equal bays, double pitched roof and 15MT cranes. The structure was designed with 2 con?gurations, one using built-up I sections and another using HSS sections. The structures are designed for the dead load, live load, wind load, earthquake load and crane load.

Approach:

The building is designed with the two structural con?gurations for optimising the material consumption while meeting structural strength requirements. After preliminary sizing of various structural members, 3-D CAD model of the structural frame of the building has been generated using STAAD-Pro Connect. The permissible values of the load factors and stresses have been considered as per guidelines of Indian Standards.

Material:

Tubular sections: Conforming to IS:4923 & IS 1161

Built-up sections: Conforming to IS:2062 for HR plates

Roo?ng sheet: 0.47 mm thick (TCT) Bare Galvalume Sheet of 550 MPa grade

Wall cladding: 0.5 mm thick (TCT) colour coated sheet of 550 MPa Grade

Load Calculations:

?Dead load

The dead load on structure includes all the permanent loads attached with structure i.e. self-weight of structure, roo?ng sheet and solar panels.

Following are the permanent loads which have been considered in design & analysis.

Weight of structure: Self weight

Weight of connections: 15% of self-weight

Weight of roof sheeting: 4.5 kg/sqm

Weight of wall cladding: 4.5 kg/sqm

Load on purlins: (.03+0.045)*1.42 = 0.1065 kN/m

Load on girts: 0.045*1.42 = 0.0639 kN/m

Utilities weight on side column: 300 kg/m

Walkway:100kg/m

?Imposed loads

Imposed loads as per IS: 875 (Part-2), acting on the structure have been considered

Roof live load: 0.75 kN/sqm

Load on walkway: 1 KN/m

Crane live load: Multiple EOT cranes of 15 MT capacities and M5 duty with 2 wheels have been considered in both bays. Working in tandem in each 30 m bay with hook c/c of 2 cranes not closer than 9 mt. in any bay (with all probable critical conditions).

?Wind load

Wind load has been calculated as per IS:875 part 3-2015.

Basic wind speed of: 47 m/s, (as per NBC 2016)

Terrain category: 2

Design Life:50 years

Percentage openings: 5 to 20% of wall

?Seismic load

Seismic loads as per IS 1893 have been evaluated by static method and the structure has been checked for adequacy for relevant seismic load combinations.

Result & Conclusions

17% less consumption of main steel.

Case Study 3 Commercial Building Using Apollo Column

Overview:

The G+4 commercial building consists of 40-m long building having 30 m width with equal bays and ?at roof. The structure was designed with 2 con?gurations, one using built-up I sections and another using HSS sections. The structures are designed for the dead load, live load, wind load & earthquake load.

Approach:

The building is designed with the two structural con?gurations for optimising the material consumption while meeting structural strength requirements. After preliminary sizing of various structural members, 3-D CAD model of the structural frame of the building has been generated using STAAD-Pro Connect. The permissible values of the load factors and stresses have been considered as per guidelines of Indian Standards.

Material:

Tubular sections: Conforming to IS:4923 & IS 1161

Built-up sections: Conforming to IS:2062 for HR plates

Roo?ng sheet: 0.47 mm thick (TCT) Bare Galvalume Sheet of 550 MPa grade

Wall cladding: 0.5 mm thick (TCT) colour coated sheet of 550 MPa grade

Load Calculations:

?Dead load

The dead load on structure includes all the permanent loads attached with structure i.e. self-weight of structure, roo?ng sheet and solar panels. Following are the permanent loads which have been considered in design & analysis.

Weight of structure: Self weight

Weight of connections: 15 % of self-weight

Weight of roof sheeting: 4.5 kg/sqm

Weight of wall cladding: 4.5 kg/sqm

Load on purlins: (.03+0.045)*1.42 = 0.1065 kN/m

Load on girts: 0.045*1.42 = 0.0639 kN/m

?Imposed loads

Imposed loads as per IS: 875 (Part-2), acting on the structure have been considered

Periphery partition load: 19.2 kN/cum

Intermediate partition load: 1 kN/sqm

Floor live load: 4 kN/sqm

Roof live load*: 4 kN/sqm

?Wind load

Wind load has been calculated as

per IS:875 part 3-2015.

Basic wind speed of: 47 m/s, (as per NBC 2016)

Terrain category:              2

Design Life: 50 years

Percentage openings: 5 to 20% of wall

?Seismic load

Seismic loads as per IS 1893 have been evaluated by static method and the structure has been checked for adequacy for relevant seismic load combinations.

Result & Conclusions

25% less consumption of main steel.

APL Apollo Live Project- Dujana Industrial Shed

About the project:

Apollo Tricoat Tubes Ltd has an upcoming green?eld project at Dujana, UP. The proposed industrial structure of 78,000 sq. ft. consists of a 146-m long shed having 49 m width with clear height.

Challenges:

The challenge was to reduce the weight and cost of the industrial shed. The ?ndings in the research work showed a signi?cant reduction in steel consumption in HSS structures as compared to built-up structures. The project aimed at developing an optimised industrial shed with minimum construction time and zero onsite fabrication.

Solution:

APL Apollo Steel Tube & Cladding Project Pvt. Ltd. worked together to achieve the results received from the research work & put its theoretical research work into this real time project.The optimised steel structure was designed & constructed using APL Apollo Steel Tube.

Result & Discussions

340 MT steel consumption.

25% less consumption of main steel.

Myths About HSS Buildings

Myth: Bolted connections are dif?cult in HSS structures

Fact: Bolted connections are easily implementable in HSS structures as per code compliance. Extended end plate to HSS beam permits the use of bolted connection

Myth: High raw material cost increases the project cost

Fact: Use of HSS sections against built-up sections in steel structures signi?cantly reduces weight of main steel which decreases the overall project cost

Myth: Unavailability of bigger sizes in the mark

Fact: APL Apollo provides tubes of sizes up to 300x300mm with a planning to produce up to size 500X500 by year 2021

Myth: HSS structures need site fabrication

Fact: By proper engineering & detailing, zero onsite fabrication can be achieved easily & manual work can be avoided by using automatic welding equipment

Myth: HSS structures are architecturally boring

Fact: Ease of fabrication using HSS sections provides ?exibility to the architects to shape their structures and express their creativity

Myth: Wastage of material is high

Fact: APL Apollo provides tailor-made size as well as cut to length (CTL) sizes from 4 to 12 mm to avoid wastage

About APL Apollo Tubes Limited

The company caters extensively to the domestic region and exports to over 30 countries globally. Its vast distribution network is spread across India, with warehouses and branch offices in various cities.

APL Apollo believes in bringing change to meet the needs of an ever-evolving economy by infusing superior cutting-edge technology and innovative solutions. Founded in 1986, in Delhi, it has catapulted to newer heights in the last three decades with newer products, improved quality, increased productivity and by benchmarking its entire product line to international standards. This has helped it to gain mindspace of a large number of customers, thereby redefining the market space for steel pipes.

The organisation believes in measuring its success and pushing its limits through regular reviews and by generating feedback. Add to this, its customer-centric approach and best practices from across the globe enables the organisation to upscale its core business with creativity and purpose.

The company’s products are certified by reputed international agencies like SGS (France), CE (Europe), UL (USA) and many more. It has received the Recognised Export House status and is also lS09001:2015, 15014001:2015 and 15045001:2018 certified. All its products are BIS-marked.

? Content provided by APL Apollo Tubes Limited.